Particles, Fields and The Future of Physics:

A Lecture by Sean Carroll

thenewenlightenmentage:

'Higgsogenesis' proposed to explain dark matter
Interactions of Higgs bosons and anti-Higgs in early Universe may also have caused asymmetry between matter and antimatter.
A key riddle in cosmology may be answered by the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson — now a leading contender for the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics on 8 October.
Two physicists suggest that the Higgs had a key role in the early Universe, producing the observed difference between the number of matter and antimatter particles and determining the density of the mysterious dark matter that makes up five-sixths of the matter in the Universe.
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thenewenlightenmentage:

'Higgsogenesis' proposed to explain dark matter

Interactions of Higgs bosons and anti-Higgs in early Universe may also have caused asymmetry between matter and antimatter.

A key riddle in cosmology may be answered by the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson — now a leading contender for the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics on 8 October.

Two physicists suggest that the Higgs had a key role in the early Universe, producing the observed difference between the number of matter and antimatter particles and determining the density of the mysterious dark matter that makes up five-sixths of the matter in the Universe.

Continue Reading

(via scousery1989)

Beginning of the End for the Standard Model?
   
The newly discovered boson at the LHC is cause for celebration, but the particle may be the beginning of the end for the Standard Model that it is thought to complete. That is actually the hope of most particle physicists.

Although spotted at last, many properties of the new particle - thought to be the Higgs boson, or at least something similar - have yet to be tested. What’s more, the telltale signature it left in the detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) does not exactly match what is predicted by the standard model of particle physics, the leading explanation for the known particles and the forces that act on them. So it is possible the new particle is something much more exotic, such as a member of a more complete model of the universe that includes the mysterious entities of dark matter and gravity. That would end the standard model’s supremacy, but it would also be a cause for even greater celebration than the discovery of the Higgs itself. 
Read article here»

Beginning of the End for the Standard Model?

 

The newly discovered boson at the LHC is cause for celebration, but the particle may be the beginning of the end for the Standard Model that it is thought to complete. That is actually the hope of most particle physicists.

Although spotted at last, many properties of the new particle - thought to be the Higgs boson, or at least something similar - have yet to be tested. What’s more, the telltale signature it left in the detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) does not exactly match what is predicted by the standard model of particle physics, the leading explanation for the known particles and the forces that act on them. So it is possible the new particle is something much more exotic, such as a member of a more complete model of the universe that includes the mysterious entities of dark matter and gravity. That would end the standard model’s supremacy, but it would also be a cause for even greater celebration than the discovery of the Higgs itself. 

Read article here»

The Unanswered Question

 

Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC

So has the elusive Higgs particle finally been discovered or not?

 

In Charles Ives’s most famous work The Unanswered Question, a miniature he called a “cosmic drama,” one finds distilled his revolutionary means, and more importantly the ends of his singular art. The piece is a kind of collage in three distinct layers, roughly coordinated. In the background a quiet and hauntingly beautiful chorale of strings represents, said Ives, “the silence of the Druids.” Over that silence a solo trumpet proclaims, again and again, an enigmatic phrase representing “the perennial question of existence.” In response to each question, a quartet of winds Ives called the “fighting answerers” runs around in search of a reply, becoming more and more frustrated until they reach a scream of rage. Then the trumpet proclaims the question once more, to be answered by silence.

[www.charlesives.org/ives_essay/index.htm]

 

Note: Click “Show annotations” at bottom of video to see commentary.

Time Portal: A Glimpse of the Future
   
Alternate view:
It would not greatly surprise me if the Higgs boson is never found. It may (a) not exist; or, (b) exist, but be something like a concerted specific interaction of three photons in different dimensions. In the latter case would it ever be recognizable as something other than “photons” ? The Higgs mechanism may be needed to explain the origin of mass, but does the Higgs mechanism require a Higgs particle? Probably not. Suppose, for instance, that the Higgs mechanism involves, rather than a particle, an operator, which alone, through its functioning, results in the scalar Higgs field. This view will be addressed in more detail in future posts.
   
Conventional view:  

In particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process that gives mass to elementary particles. The particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs field that permeates all space. More precisely, the Higgs mechanism endows gauge bosons in a gauge theory with mass through absorption of Nambu–Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking.
In the standard model, the phrase “Higgs mechanism” refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the evidence for the electroweak Higgs mechanism is overwhelming, experiments have yet to discover the single Higgs boson predicted by the standard model. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is currently searching for Higgs bosons, and attempting to understand the electroweak Higgs mechanism.
The Higgs mechanism was incorporated into modern particle physics by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, and is an essential part of the standard model. 
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism]

   
Many thanks to Sven Sauer for his wonderful fantasy landscape above. More on the artist and his work can be found here»

Time Portal: A Glimpse of the Future

 

Alternate view:

It would not greatly surprise me if the Higgs boson is never found. It may (a) not exist; or, (b) exist, but be something like a concerted specific interaction of three photons in different dimensions. In the latter case would it ever be recognizable as something other than “photons” ? The Higgs mechanism may be needed to explain the origin of mass, but does the Higgs mechanism require a Higgs particle? Probably not. Suppose, for instance, that the Higgs mechanism involves, rather than a particle, an operator, which alone, through its functioning, results in the scalar Higgs field. This view will be addressed in more detail in future posts.

 

Conventional view:  

In particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process that gives mass to elementary particles. The particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs field that permeates all space. More precisely, the Higgs mechanism endows gauge bosons in a gauge theory with mass through absorption of Nambu–Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking.

In the standard model, the phrase “Higgs mechanism” refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the evidence for the electroweak Higgs mechanism is overwhelming, experiments have yet to discover the single Higgs boson predicted by the standard model. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is currently searching for Higgs bosons, and attempting to understand the electroweak Higgs mechanism.

The Higgs mechanism was incorporated into modern particle physics by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, and is an essential part of the standard model

[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism]

 

Many thanks to Sven Sauer for his wonderful fantasy landscape above. More on the artist and his work can be found here»

Quantum Field Theory - VIII
 

The Vacuum Field - 2
 
The Higgs Field
Currently, physics is in lack of a general theory of what the vacuum and the vacuum energy-field actually is. However, since the nineteen-sixties the consensus has gradually emerged that a certain field, the Higgs field, resides in the vacuum. The Higgs field differs from the ordinary fields in the respect that even in its ground-state there are quanta present. These quanta, the Higgs bosons, are regarded as actual physical manifestations of the vacuum energy-field. It is generally believed that the Higgs field is the entity which is responsible for turning the vacuum energy into matter.
According to Quantum Field Theory the ordinary quanta require their mass by interactions with the Higgs field (or rather, with the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field). Prior to this interaction the electrons, quarks, force-carriers, etc. are the massless quanta of some assumed fields - the socalled gauge fields. In their massless shape the gauge field quanta are undetectable - so it is currently an open question whether the gauge fields actually are of physical relevance or just mathematical entities. Nevertheless, it is the consensus that the theory about the Higgs mechanism is the one theory that fits best with everything else known to quantum physics.
[buddhasociety.com/quantum-physics/vacuum-fields-6]

Quantum Field Theory - VIII

 

The Vacuum Field - 2

 

The Higgs Field

Currently, physics is in lack of a general theory of what the vacuum and the vacuum energy-field actually is. However, since the nineteen-sixties the consensus has gradually emerged that a certain field, the Higgs field, resides in the vacuum. The Higgs field differs from the ordinary fields in the respect that even in its ground-state there are quanta present. These quanta, the Higgs bosons, are regarded as actual physical manifestations of the vacuum energy-field. It is generally believed that the Higgs field is the entity which is responsible for turning the vacuum energy into matter.

According to Quantum Field Theory the ordinary quanta require their mass by interactions with the Higgs field (or rather, with the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field). Prior to this interaction the electrons, quarks, force-carriers, etc. are the massless quanta of some assumed fields - the socalled gauge fields. In their massless shape the gauge field quanta are undetectable - so it is currently an open question whether the gauge fields actually are of physical relevance or just mathematical entities. Nevertheless, it is the consensus that the theory about the Higgs mechanism is the one theory that fits best with everything else known to quantum physics.

[buddhasociety.com/quantum-physics/vacuum-fields-6]

            Supersymmetry — What Is It?
   
Incorporating supersymmetry into the Standard Model involves doubling the number of particles since none of the particles in the Standard Model can be superpartners of each other. With the addition of new particles, many new interactions become possible.

If the world were exactly supersymmetric, every particle known would have superpartners with the same interactions and the same mass. But fermions have boson superpartners, and vice versa. One other addition: extra Higgs particles are necessary compared with the Standard Model: 5 instead of 1.
[profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/some-speculative-theoretical-ideas-for-the-lhc/supersymmetry/supersymmetry-what-is-it]

            Supersymmetry — What Is It?

 

Incorporating supersymmetry into the Standard Model involves doubling the number of particles since none of the particles in the Standard Model can be superpartners of each other. With the addition of new particles, many new interactions become possible.

If the world were exactly supersymmetric, every particle known would have superpartners with the same interactions and the same mass. But fermions have boson superpartners, and vice versa. One other addition: extra Higgs particles are necessary compared with the Standard Model: 5 instead of 1.

[profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/some-speculative-theoretical-ideas-for-the-lhc/supersymmetry/supersymmetry-what-is-it]