CERN LHC Tunnel1

spherical-harmonics:

Supersymmetry: a tantalising theory

Supersymmetry is a theory that first appeared as a mathematical symmetry in string theory in early 1970s. Over time, several people contributed new elements that eventually led to a theory that is now one of the most promising successors to the Standard Model. Among the pioneers, the names of two Russian theorists, D. V. Volkov and V. P Akulov, stand out. In 1973, Julius Wess and Bruno Zumino wrote the first supersymmetric model in four dimensions, paving the way to future developments. The following year, Pierre Fayet generalized the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism to supersymmetry and introduced superpartners of Standard Model particles for the first time.

All this work would have remained a pure mathematical exercise unless people had noticed that supersymmetry could help fix some of the flaws of the Standard Model.

This is the second part of a series of three on supersymmetry, the theory many believe could go beyond the Standard Model. First I explained what is the Standard Model and showed its limitations. I now introduce supersymmetry and explain how it would fix the main flaws of the Standard Model. Finally, I will review how experimental physicists are trying to discover “superparticles” at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

Photo: Tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) By Julian Herzog • [more photography on my website] (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

scalesofperception:

CERN | Anna Pantelia

CERN is the European organization for Nuclear research and it’s considered the biggest particle physics experiment. it’s located at geneva and scientists, engineers and students from 113 nationalities are hosted. 29 September of 1954 was the ratification of this organization by 12 countries in Europe. Several important achievements have been made during experiments at CERN with the most important the development of World Wide Web. 

SoP - Scale of Work

From the largest scale to the smallest. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, one of the largest man-made structures was constructed to investigate the smallest known entities of nature, the subatomic particles of the quantum realm.

Beginning of the End for the Standard Model?
   
The newly discovered boson at the LHC is cause for celebration, but the particle may be the beginning of the end for the Standard Model that it is thought to complete. That is actually the hope of most particle physicists.

Although spotted at last, many properties of the new particle - thought to be the Higgs boson, or at least something similar - have yet to be tested. What’s more, the telltale signature it left in the detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) does not exactly match what is predicted by the standard model of particle physics, the leading explanation for the known particles and the forces that act on them. So it is possible the new particle is something much more exotic, such as a member of a more complete model of the universe that includes the mysterious entities of dark matter and gravity. That would end the standard model’s supremacy, but it would also be a cause for even greater celebration than the discovery of the Higgs itself. 
Read article here»

Beginning of the End for the Standard Model?

 

The newly discovered boson at the LHC is cause for celebration, but the particle may be the beginning of the end for the Standard Model that it is thought to complete. That is actually the hope of most particle physicists.

Although spotted at last, many properties of the new particle - thought to be the Higgs boson, or at least something similar - have yet to be tested. What’s more, the telltale signature it left in the detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) does not exactly match what is predicted by the standard model of particle physics, the leading explanation for the known particles and the forces that act on them. So it is possible the new particle is something much more exotic, such as a member of a more complete model of the universe that includes the mysterious entities of dark matter and gravity. That would end the standard model’s supremacy, but it would also be a cause for even greater celebration than the discovery of the Higgs itself. 

Read article here»

The Unanswered Question

 

Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC

So has the elusive Higgs particle finally been discovered or not?

 

In Charles Ives’s most famous work The Unanswered Question, a miniature he called a “cosmic drama,” one finds distilled his revolutionary means, and more importantly the ends of his singular art. The piece is a kind of collage in three distinct layers, roughly coordinated. In the background a quiet and hauntingly beautiful chorale of strings represents, said Ives, “the silence of the Druids.” Over that silence a solo trumpet proclaims, again and again, an enigmatic phrase representing “the perennial question of existence.” In response to each question, a quartet of winds Ives called the “fighting answerers” runs around in search of a reply, becoming more and more frustrated until they reach a scream of rage. Then the trumpet proclaims the question once more, to be answered by silence.

[www.charlesives.org/ives_essay/index.htm]

 

Note: Click “Show annotations” at bottom of video to see commentary.

Time Portal: A Glimpse of the Future
   
Alternate view:
It would not greatly surprise me if the Higgs boson is never found. It may (a) not exist; or, (b) exist, but be something like a concerted specific interaction of three photons in different dimensions. In the latter case would it ever be recognizable as something other than “photons” ? The Higgs mechanism may be needed to explain the origin of mass, but does the Higgs mechanism require a Higgs particle? Probably not. Suppose, for instance, that the Higgs mechanism involves, rather than a particle, an operator, which alone, through its functioning, results in the scalar Higgs field. This view will be addressed in more detail in future posts.
   
Conventional view:  

In particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process that gives mass to elementary particles. The particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs field that permeates all space. More precisely, the Higgs mechanism endows gauge bosons in a gauge theory with mass through absorption of Nambu–Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking.
In the standard model, the phrase “Higgs mechanism” refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the evidence for the electroweak Higgs mechanism is overwhelming, experiments have yet to discover the single Higgs boson predicted by the standard model. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is currently searching for Higgs bosons, and attempting to understand the electroweak Higgs mechanism.
The Higgs mechanism was incorporated into modern particle physics by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, and is an essential part of the standard model. 
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism]

   
Many thanks to Sven Sauer for his wonderful fantasy landscape above. More on the artist and his work can be found here»

Time Portal: A Glimpse of the Future

 

Alternate view:

It would not greatly surprise me if the Higgs boson is never found. It may (a) not exist; or, (b) exist, but be something like a concerted specific interaction of three photons in different dimensions. In the latter case would it ever be recognizable as something other than “photons” ? The Higgs mechanism may be needed to explain the origin of mass, but does the Higgs mechanism require a Higgs particle? Probably not. Suppose, for instance, that the Higgs mechanism involves, rather than a particle, an operator, which alone, through its functioning, results in the scalar Higgs field. This view will be addressed in more detail in future posts.

 

Conventional view:  

In particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process that gives mass to elementary particles. The particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs field that permeates all space. More precisely, the Higgs mechanism endows gauge bosons in a gauge theory with mass through absorption of Nambu–Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking.

In the standard model, the phrase “Higgs mechanism” refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the evidence for the electroweak Higgs mechanism is overwhelming, experiments have yet to discover the single Higgs boson predicted by the standard model. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is currently searching for Higgs bosons, and attempting to understand the electroweak Higgs mechanism.

The Higgs mechanism was incorporated into modern particle physics by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, and is an essential part of the standard model

[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism]

 

Many thanks to Sven Sauer for his wonderful fantasy landscape above. More on the artist and his work can be found here»

Read more about the searches for the Higgs boson at LHC and at previous experiments:

                                     Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
   

Experiments to determine whether the Higgs boson exists are currently being performed using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and were performed at Fermilab's Tevatron until its closure in late 2011. Mathematical consistency of the Standard Model requires that any mechanism capable of generating the masses of elementary particles become visible at energies above 1.4 TeV; therefore, the LHC (designed to collide two 7-TeV proton beams) is expected to be able to answer the question of whether or not the Higgs boson actually exists. In December 2011, Fabiola Gianotti and Guido Tonelli, spokespersons of the two main experiments at the LHC (ATLAS and CMS) both reported independently that their data hints at a possibility the Higgs may exist with a mass around 125 GeV/c2 (about 133 proton masses, on the order of 10−25 kg). They also reported that the original range under investigation has been narrowed down considerably and that a mass outside approximately 115–130 GeV/c2 is almost ruled out. No conclusive answer yet exists, although it is expected that the LHC will provide sufficient data by the end of 2012 for a definite answer.
In the popular media, the particle is sometimes referred to as the God particle, a title generally disliked by the scientific community as media hyperbole that misleads readers.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson]

                                     Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

 

Experiments to determine whether the Higgs boson exists are currently being performed using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and were performed at Fermilab's Tevatron until its closure in late 2011. Mathematical consistency of the Standard Model requires that any mechanism capable of generating the masses of elementary particles become visible at energies above 1.4 TeV; therefore, the LHC (designed to collide two 7-TeV proton beams) is expected to be able to answer the question of whether or not the Higgs boson actually exists. In December 2011, Fabiola Gianotti and Guido Tonelli, spokespersons of the two main experiments at the LHC (ATLAS and CMS) both reported independently that their data hints at a possibility the Higgs may exist with a mass around 125 GeV/c2 (about 133 proton masses, on the order of 10−25 kg). They also reported that the original range under investigation has been narrowed down considerably and that a mass outside approximately 115–130 GeV/c2 is almost ruled out. No conclusive answer yet exists, although it is expected that the LHC will provide sufficient data by the end of 2012 for a definite answer.

In the popular media, the particle is sometimes referred to as the God particle, a title generally disliked by the scientific community as media hyperbole that misleads readers.

[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson]

                             Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN
Anyone out there know why this monster atom smasher was built in the form of a mandala? (I’m not talking about the long 17-mile dimension here but the eightfold rotational symmetry seen above.)

                             Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

Anyone out there know why this monster atom smasher was built in the form of a mandala? (I’m not talking about the long 17-mile dimension here but the eightfold rotational symmetry seen above.)

(via wtf-science)